John Backus

1950-52 ื’’ื•ืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืก, ื—ืœื•ืฅ ื‘ืฉืคื•ืช ืชื›ื ื•ืช, ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืฉืœ IBM ื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ื‘ืชืžื•ื ื” ืžืฉืžืืœ ืฆื™ืœื•ื ืžืืช ื’’ืืŸ ืคื•ืจื“ ื‘ืจื ืŸ, “ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื‘ืž ื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”: ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื””, IBM, ืืจืžื•ื ืง ื ื™ื• ื™ื•ืจืง (1971). ื‘ื—ืœืง ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืชืžื•ื ื” ื ื›ืชื‘: “ื’’ื•ืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืก, ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ื”ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ืฉืคื™ืชื—ื” ืืช ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ, ื”ื™ื” ืžืชื›ื ืช ืžื•ืงื“ื ืฉืœ SSEC”(1954-57). ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืฆื‘ื ืืจื””ื‘ ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื”, ื‘ืงื•ืก ืงื™ื‘ืœ ืืช ืชื•ืืจ ื‘ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื” ืžื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืฉืœ ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื›ืœืœื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื ืช 1949 ื•ืชื•ืืจ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืžื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืžืืกื˜ืจืก ื‘ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 1950. ื”ื•ื ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ IBMื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืžืขื‘ื“ื” ื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืž 1950 ืขื“ 1952 , ื•ืขืžื“ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉืœ IBM, ื•ืงื™ื‘ืœ ื”ื•ืงืจื” ื›ืขืžื™ืช ืฉืœ IBMื‘ -1963. ืžืœื‘ื“ ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ,ื‘ืงื•ืก ย ืคื™ืชื— ืืช BNF(Backus Normal Formืื• Backus Naur Form), ื™ื™ืฉื•ื ืฉืœ ื”ื“ืงื“ื•ืง ื‘ืฉืคื•ืช ื”ืชื›ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื ื•ืขื ื—ื•ืžืกืงื™ ืœืฉืคื•ืช ืžื—ืฉื‘ ืคื•ืจืžืœื™ื•ืช, ื”ืฉืคื” ื”ืžืฉืžืฉืช ืœืชื™ืื•ืจ ืคื•ืจืžืœื™ ืฉืœ ืฉืคื•ืช ืžื—ืฉื‘, ื•ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื”ื›ื•ืชื‘ืช ื”ืจืืฉื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื“ื•”ื— ื”ืžืชื•ืงืŸ ืฉืœ ืืœื’ื•ืœ 60. ื”ื•ื ืคืจืฉ ื‘ืฉื ืช 1991.ืฆื™ื˜ื•ื˜ ืžืคืจืกื™ ACM Turing:

ืชืจื•ืžืชื• ื”ืขืžื•ืงื”, ืžืฉืคื™ืขื” ื•ืžืชืžืฉื›ืช ืœืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ืชื›ื ื•ืช ืžืขืฉื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืžื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื”, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื• ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ, ื•ื›ืŸ ืœืคืจืกื•ื ืžืขืžื™ืง ืฉืœ ื”ืœื™ื›ื™ื ืคื•ืจืžืœื™ื™ื ืœืืคื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืคื•ืช ืชื›ื ื•ืช.

ื’’ื•ืŸ ื‘ืืงื•ืก ื ืคื˜ืจ ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื• ื‘ืืฉืœื ื“, ืื•ืจื’ื•ืŸ, 17 ื‘ืžืจืฅ 2007.

ื‘ืฉื ืช 2004 ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืœื™ ืืช ื”ืชื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ื”ื‘ืื” ืื™ืชื•, ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื™ื›ืจื•ืช:

ื”ื™ื™ ื’’ื•ืŸ, ื ื”ื“ืจ ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืื™ืชืš ืงืฉืจ. ืžืื– ืฉื‘ืืชื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืžื” ืฉืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืœืื‘, ืืชื” ื ื—ืฉื‘ ื›ื’ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืžืงื•ืžื™.

ื‘ืคืขื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉื ืชืงืœืชื™ ื‘ืžื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ -1965 ื‘ืฆื‘ื, ื”ื’ืขืชื™ ืœืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื‘ -1966 (ื›ืืฉืจ IBMื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ, ืžืžืฉ ื‘ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ื™ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื• ืขื›ืฉื™ื•, ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื™ื“ืขืชื™ ืื–). ื‘ืื•ืชื ื™ืžื™ื, ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืžืœืื” ื‘ืœื•ื—ื•ืช, ื—ืคื™ืกื•ืช ืงืœืคื™ื, ื—ื•ื˜ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื. ืื ื™ ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืž-1940 ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ื•ืขืœื™ื• ืขืจื™ืžืช ืžื“ืจื™ื›ื™ื EAM(ื—ื•ื•ื™ืช ื”ืชื›ื ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืขืœ 407).

ืคื•ืœ ื”ืคื ื” ืื•ืชื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืขืœ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ืช ื”ืžื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/

ืืฉืจ, ื›ืคื™ ืฉืื ื™ ืžื ื™ื— ืฉืจืื™ืช, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื›ืžื•ืช ืงื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ืื™ื ืกื•ืคื™ืช ืฉืœ ื“ืคื™ ืžืฉื ื” ืขืœ ืื ืฉื™ื, ืฆื™ื•ื“, ื•ืื™ืจื•ืขื™ื, ื•ืขื•ื“ ื›ืžื” ืกืคืจื™ื ืžืงื•ื•ื ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื™ืจื•ืช. ื”ืชื—ืœืชื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขืœ ื–ื” ื›ืฉื’ื™ืœื™ืชื™ ืฉื”ืคื›ืชื™ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช (ื›ืžืขื˜) ื”ื‘ื—ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื™ ืžื‘ื•ื’ืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื, ื•ื”ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืื”ื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืงืฆืช ื ื•ืกื˜ืœื’ื™ื”.

ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉื”ืชื—ืœืชื™ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘, ื”ืชืขื ื™ื™ื ืชื™ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ื”ืžืขื‘ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืืงืจื˜ ื•ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืื ื™ ื–ื•ื›ืจ ืžื™ื“ ืจืืฉื•ื ื”. ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ืชื—ืœืชื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืฉื™ื—ื•ืช ื•ื“ื•ื”ืœ ืžื•ื•ืชื™ืงื™ ื”ืžืขื‘ื“ื”, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ืจื‘ ื’ืจื•ืฉ, ืืจื™ืง ื”ื ืงืื, ืืœื™ ืงืจืื‘ื™ืฅ, ืงืŸ ืฉืจื™ื™ื ืจ ื•ืกื™ื™ืžื•ืจ ืงื ื™ื’, ืฉื›ื•ืœื ื‘ื•ื•ื“ืื™ ื–ื•ื›ืจื™ื (ื•ืจื•ื‘ื ื ื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ื“ื•ื”ืœ), ื›ืžื• ื’ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืื– ืฉืขื–ื‘ืช. ืืจื™ืง ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื’ืจ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ื“ื™ืจื”, ืžืžืฉ ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืคื™ื ื”. ืืœื™ ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ื ื™ื• ื™ื•ืจืง. ื”ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ื˜ื•ืจื•ื ื˜ื•.

ืœืžืงื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื™ืฉ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืžื“ื”ื™ืžื”, ื›ื–ื• ืฉืื™ื ื” ื™ื“ื•ืขื” ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”, ืฉืœื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืฉืืจ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืงืจื™, ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื—ื•ื’ื’ืช 250 ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืฉื ื”, ื•ืื ื™ ื”ืคืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื“ื” ืคืงื˜ื• ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื’ื™ื˜ืœื™ ืœืื™ืจื•ืข, ืœืื˜ ืœืื˜ ืžืงื‘ืœ ืขื•ื“ ื—ื•ืžืจ ืœืชื•ืš C250ื”ืืชืจ:

http://www.columbia.edu/c250/

ืœืžืฉืœ ื”ื•ืœืจื™ื™ืช (ื•ืขื“ ืžื”ืจื” ืืงืจื˜) ื›”ืกื˜ื•ื“ื ื˜ื™ื ืžืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ื ืืช ื–ืžื ื”, ื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ืจืš ื”ื”ื ืฆื—ื” (“ืขืžื“ ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื””).

ืื ืชืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืคื™ ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžื—ืฉื•ื‘, ืชืจืื” ืฉื ื™ืกื™ืชื™ ืœื–ื”ื•ืช ืžืกืคืจ ืœื ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ืฉืœ “ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื” (ืขืœ ื—ืœืงื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืชื•ื•ื›ื—) ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืฆืจื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื• / ืื• ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ืžื“ืขื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื™ , ื”ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ื”ืžื™ื™ืกื“ืช ืฉืœ ื”- ACM,ย  (ื–ื” ืชื•ืฆืจ ืฉืœืš) SSEC, ืฉืขืœื™ื• ื™ืฉ ืืกื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื˜ื•ืขื ืช ืฉื–ื”ื• ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ ื”ืืจื›ื™ื˜ืงื˜ื•ื ื™ ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื•ื•ืŸ-ื ื•ื™ืžืŸ (ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืœืื—ืกืŸ-ืชื•ื›ื ื™ืช ื ื™ืชื•ื—ื™ื ื•ื”ื ื—ื™ื•ืช ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ื—ื ื•ืช, ืืฃ ื›ื™ ื–ื” ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžืฆื‘ ื”ืคืขื•ืœื” ื”ืจื’ื™ืœ ืฉืœื”, ื•ืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ืŸ ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ ืฉืœื” ื”ื™ื” ื–ืขื™ืจ):

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/ssec.html

ื•ื‘ื›ืŸ, ืื ื™ ืœื ืจื•ืฆื” ืฉื”ืžื™ื™ืœ ื”ื–ื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืืจื•ืš ืžื“ื™, ืื– ืื ื™ ืืกื™ื™ื ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืื ื™ ืืฉืžื— ืœืฉืžื•ืข ืžืžืš ื•ืœืฉืœื‘ (ืขื ืงืจื“ื™ื˜ ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ) ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืชืจืฆื” ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ, ื›ืžื• ื’ื ืชื™ืงื•ื ื™ื. ื›ืืŸ ืชืžืฆื ืกืงื™ืฆื” ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ืช ื“ืœื™ืœื” ืžืื•ื“:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/backus.html

ืืฉืžื— ืœื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ ื•ืœื—ืฉื•ืฃ, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื ื•ื’ืข ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืื• ืžืขื‘ื“ื” ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ. (ื™ืฉ ื“ื™ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื‘ืงื‘ื•ืฆืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช Alt.Folklore.Computersืขืœ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ, ื•ืื ื™ ืชื•ื”ื” ืื ื ืฉืืจืช ื‘ืงืฉืจ ืขื ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉืขื–ื‘ืช ื•ืฉืœื—ืช ืื•ืชื ืœื’ืจืกืื•ืช ืžื•ืงื“ืžื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ 650 ืื• NORCืฉืœื”ื).

ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื•ื•ืœืืก ืืงืจื˜, ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืื•ืชื ืœืคืจื•ืคื™ืœ ืฉืœื•:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/eckert.html

ืœืคื ื™ C250ืฉื ืคืจืกื ื–ืืช ื‘ืคื•ืžื‘ื™.

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ื”ื™ื™ ื’ ‘ื•ืŸ, ื”ืจื‘ [Grosch] ืขื•ื“ื“ ืื•ืชื™ ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ืื™ืชืš ืงืฉืจ ืฉื•ื‘. ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžื” ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืœื”ื•ื“ืขื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉืœื™, ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื–ื” ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื™ ื›ืžื•ืช ื ื›ื‘ื“ื” ืฉืœ ื’ื™ืœื•ื™ื™ื ืžืื–, ื•ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ืฆื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื‘, ื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืžืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืขืœ ืชืงื•ืคืชื• ืฉืœ ืืงืจื˜ ื‘ืžืฆืคื” ื”ื™ืžื™:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/navalobservatory.html

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/almanac.html

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/tableprinter.html

ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืœื• ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ืžืขื˜ ืœืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”, ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืงืฉืจ ืฉืœ ืืงืจื˜, ืื ื™ ื’ื™ืœื™ืชื™ ืฉืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ืžืจืชืงื•ืช, ื›ื ืจืื” ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื’ื ื”ื•ืจื™ ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืœื—ืžื” ืื– ื’ื“ืœืชื™ ืขื ื–ื”. ืœืœื ืฉื: ื™ืฉ ืœื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืกืคืจื™ื” ืงื˜ื ื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืœื—ืžื” ื‘ืžื“ืฃ ื”ืกืคืจื™ื ืฉืœื™!

 

ืขื‘ืจืชื™ ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉืœ Backusื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜ ื•ืจืง ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžืชื™ ืœื‘ ืœื›ืžื” ื”ืงื‘ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ื ื™ื ื•:

ื”ืœื›ืช ืœืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ื•ื™ืจื’ ‘ื™ื ื™ื”, ืื‘ืœ ืขื–ื‘ืช ืžื•ืงื“ื ื•ื”ืฆื˜ืจืคืช ืœืฆื‘ื. ื’ื ืื ื™ (ืื ื™ ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ื›ืžื• UVAื›ืฉื”ื™ื™ืช ืฉื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช 1960s, ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืขืฉื™ืช ื”ื™ื” ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ืœืชื•ืš ืงื”ื•ืช ื—ื•ืฉื™ื).

ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืœืš ื”ื›ืฉืจื” ื˜ื›ื ื™ืช ื‘ืฆื‘ื. ื’ื ืœื™ (ื–ื” ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื‘ื• ืœืžื“ืชื™ ื”ืงืœื“ื”, ื—ื™ื•ื•ื˜ ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ื•ื›ื• ‘, ื•ืจืื™ืชื™ ืืช ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ ื•ืืช * Mobile * IBM 1410, ืฉื ืฉื™ืžืฉ ืœืชื›ื ื•ืช ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ ืžืื•ื“ ืฉืœ “ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ื•ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ืžื™ื“ืข ืฉืœื™ื˜ื”” – ืื ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื• ืจืข ืื ื™ ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื‘ืœ ื–ื• ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื”.

ืœืžื“ืช ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืื—ืจื™ ื”ืฆื‘ื – ื’ื ืื ื™ (ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื›ืœืœื™ื™ื), ืขืœ ื”ืชืงืฆื™ื‘ ืฉืงื™ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžื”ืฆื‘ื.

ืงื™ื‘ืœืช ืชื•ืืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืชื•ืืจ ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”? (ื’ื ืื ื™) ื—ืœืง ืžื”ืงื•ืจืกื™ื ืฉืœืงื—ืชื™ ื‘- EE(ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืœื ื• ืžื—ืœืงื” ืœืžื“ืขื™ ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘) ื”ื™ื• ืืœื• ืฉื ื•ืฆืจื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืจื‘ Groschื• Wallace Eckert(ืœืžืฉืœ ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ื ื•ืžืจื™ื•ืช), ืื– ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื•ืžื’ื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฆื•ื•ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ.

ื›ืžื•ืš (?) ืื ื™ ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืขื ืงืจื™ื™ืจื” ื‘ืœืชื™ ืฆืคื•ื™ื” ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืžื—ืฉื•ื‘ 35 ืฉื ื™ื ืžืื•ื—ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ. ืื’ื‘, ืœืืจื™ืง ื”ื ืงื ื”ื™ื” ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืฆื‘ืื™ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืฉืœืš – ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืœื” ืืช ืชืงื•ืคืชื• ื‘ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื! ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืฉืœื• ื›ืืŸ:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/hankam.html

ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงืจื”, ืื ื™ ืืฉืžื— ืœืงื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืชืจืฆื” ืœืชืจื•ื -ื–ื™ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช, ืชื™ืงื•ื ื™ื ืื• ืชืžื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื”, ืื• ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืงืฉื•ืจ ืืœื™ื•. ื”ื‘ื™ื•ื’ืจืคื™ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ืงื•ืก ืฉืงื™ื™ืžืช ื›ื™ื•ื:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/backus.html

ื”ื•ื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ ื‘ืกื™ืกื™, ื•ืื ื™ ื‘ื˜ื•ื— ื›ื™ ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื”ืคืจืกื•ื ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืžืฉืœืžื•ืช (ืื’ื‘, ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ื›ืชื‘ ื™ื“ ื‘ืกืคืจื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื ื•, ืกืคืจ ื ื“ื™ืจ ืฉื ืงืจื “ื’ื™ืฉื” ืžื•ืคืฉื˜ืช ืœื‘ืขื™ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืฆื‘ืข ื•ืœืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ืžืคื•ืช”, ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืœืš )

ืื ื™ ืžื ื™ื— ืฉื”ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ ื”ืจืืฉื™ ืฉืœืš ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ื” ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื” SSEC. ื”ื ื” ืžื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื™ ืขืœ ื–ื”:

http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/ssec.html

ืื ื™ ืžืกื›ื ืขื ืกืขื™ืฃ ืฉื ืงืจื “ื”ืื SSECื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืžืื•ื—ืกืŸ ืชื•ื›ื ื™ืช?” ืืฉืžื— ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ื”ืขืจื•ืช ืฉืœืš. ืื’ื‘, ื™ืฉ ืื•ืฆืจ ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื–ื›ืจื•ืช SSECื‘ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืงืจื•ืœื™ื™ื ื” ืกื˜ื™ื™ื˜:

http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/archives/collections/pdf/brooke_mc268.pdf

ืื‘ืœ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืœื’ืฉืช ืืœื™ื• ื”ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื™ืฉื™.

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ืฉืœื•ื ืคืจื ืง,

 

ืื ื™ ืžืชื ืฆืœ ืฉืœื ื”ื’ื‘ืชื™ ืœื“ื•ื”ืœ ื”ืงื•ื“ื ืฉืœืš, ืื‘ืœ ืงื™ื‘ืœืชื™ ืืช ื–ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฉืืฉืชื™ ื ืคื˜ืจื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืกื•ืขืจื™ื ืžืื–. ืื ื™ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืขืกื•ืง ืžืื•ื“ ื‘ืขืจื™ื›ืช ื•ืคืจืกื•ื ื”ืกืคืจ ื”ืœื-ื’ืžื•ืจ ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื“ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื‘ืข ื”ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช.

ื‘ื—ื ืชื™ ืจืง ืžืขื˜ ืžื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืืชื” ืžืฆื™ื’ ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜, ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืฉืจืื™ืชื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืจืชืง. ื–ื” ื‘ืืžืช ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืื™ืš ื”ืฆืœื—ืช ืœืฉืžืจ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคืจื˜ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื. ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืœื ืฆื— ื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ื”ืงื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ื”ืžืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืฉืืชื” ื™ืฆืจืช.

ื–ื” ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืื™ืš ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื• ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืžื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื•ืช. ื•ื–ื” ื ื›ื•ืŸ, ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืชื™ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฆื‘ื ืจืฆื” ืœืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื ืœืฉื•ื›ืจื”. ืื ื™ ืžืงื•ื•ื” ืฉืืชื” ืœื ื ื›ืฉืœ ื›ืžื• ืฉืื ื™! “ื”ืงืจื™ื™ืจื” ืฉืœื™” ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืžื•ืžื ื” ื’ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฆืขืช ื—ื•ืง GI. ืขื ื”ืชืžื—ื•ืช ื‘ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื”.

ื‘ื™ืœื™ืชื™ ืžืขื˜ ืžืื•ื“ ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ. ืื‘ืœ ื–ื›ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื”ืฉืคืขื” ืฉืœื™ ืขืœ ื”- SSECื‘ื—ื™ื‘ื”. (ืื ื›ื™ ืื ื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉื–ื” ืงืฆืช ืœืžืชื•ื— ืืช ื”ื™ืจื™ืขื” ืขื ื”ื’ื“ืจืช ย ื””ืชื•ื›ื ืช ืื—ืกื•ืŸ” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ – ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืื—ืช ื”ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื™ ื ืขืฉืชื” ืขื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ืื—ืกื•ืŸ ืžื•ืชืืžื•ืช ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืžืงื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื›ืžื” ื ืชื•ื ื™ื ืื•ื—ืกื ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ) ื‘ืชืงื•ื•ื” ืฉื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ.

ื™ืฉ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœื•ืžืจ, ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืžืขื˜ ื–ืžืŸ, ื–ื” ื›ื ืจืื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืงืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื ืื ื—ื ื• ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ. ืžืชื™ ื–ื” ื–ืžืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื”ืชืงืฉืจ?

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ืื ื™ ืžืชื ืฆืœ ืฉืœื ื”ื’ื‘ืชื™ ืœื“ื•ื”ืœ ื”ืงื•ื“ื ืฉืœืš, ืื‘ืœ ืงื™ื‘ืœืชื™ ืืช ื–ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฉืืฉืชื™ ื ืคื˜ืจื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืกื•ืขืจื™ื ืžืื–.

-ื–ื” ืื—ื“ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืื™ื•ืžื™ื ืฉื™ื›ืœืชื™ ืœืฉื•ืžืข, ืื ื™ ืžืฉืชืฃ ื‘ืฆืขืจืš, ืœืฆื“ ื–ื” ื”ื ื•ืกื˜ืœื’ื™ื” ื”ืžื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ืช ืื™ื ื ื” ื”ื›ืจื—ื™ืช

ืื ื™ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืขืกื•ืง ืžืื•ื“ ื‘ืขืจื™ื›ืช ื•ืคืจืกื•ื ื”ืกืคืจ ื”ืœื-ื’ืžื•ืจ ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื“ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื‘ืข ื”ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช.

  • ื–ื” ื ืฉืžืข ืงืฉื”, ืืคืฉืจ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืขืœ ืžื” ื–ื”?

 

ื‘ื—ื ืชื™ ืจืง ืžืขื˜ ืžื”ื—ื•ืžืจ ื”ืขืฆื•ื ืฉืืชื” ืžืฆื™ื’ ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜, ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืฉืจืื™ืชื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืจืชืง. ื–ื” ื‘ืืžืช ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืื™ืš ื”ืฆืœื—ืช ืœืฉืžืจ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคืจื˜ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื. ืื ื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืœื ืฆื— ื‘ืงืจื™ืืช ื”ืงื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ื”ืžืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืฉืืชื” ื™ืฆืจืช.

– ืชื•ื“ื”, ื–ื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืื”ื‘ื” – ืื ื™ ืžื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช ืื ื™ ืžืชื’ืขื’ืข ืœื™ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ืžื—ืฉื‘ื™ื ืขื•ืฆื‘ื• ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืคืชื•ืจ ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื—ืžื•ืจื•ืช, ืœืขื•ืžืช ื”ื™ื•ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ื”ืชืงื ื™ื.
ืžื” ืฉืื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืื•ื”ื‘ ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ื• ื–ื” ืื™ืš ืฉื–ื” ืžื—ื‘ืจ ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ื›ืืŸ ืžื–ืžืŸ. ื”ืืชืจ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ื˜, ืื• ืฉืžื™ืฉื”ื• ืžืกืคืจ ืœื”ื ืขืœ ื–ื”, ื•ืื– ื”ื ื›ื•ืชื‘ื™ื ืœื™, ื•ื›ืš ื–ื” ื’ื“ืœ. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ื™ืฉ ืœื™ ืืช ื”ืขื•ื ื’ ืœืฉื™ื ืขืžื™ืชื™ื ืื‘ื•ื“ื™ื ื‘ื—ื–ืจื” ื‘ืงืฉืจ (ื‘ืื™ืฉื•ืจ ืฉืœื”ื, ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ!)

ื–ื” ืžื“ื”ื™ื ืื™ืš ื“ืจื›ื™ื ื• ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืžื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื•ืช. ื•ื–ื” ื ื›ื•ืŸ, ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืชื™ ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฆื‘ื ืจืฆื” ืœืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืขืฆืžื ืœืฉื•ื›ืจื”. ืื ื™ ืžืงื•ื•ื” ืฉืืชื” ืœื ื ื›ืฉืœ ื›ืžื• ืฉืื ื™!

  • ืจืื™ืชื™ ืืช ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ืขืœ ื”ืงื™ืจ ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื–ื” ืงืจื” ืืžืจืชื™- “ืืชื” ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืคื˜ืจ ืื•ืชื™, ืื ื™ ืžืชืคื˜ืจ! ?

“ื”ืงืจื™ื™ืจื” ืฉืœื™” ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ืžื•ืžื ื” ื’ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฆืขืช ื—ื•ืง GI. ืขื ื”ืชืžื—ื•ืช ื‘ืžืชืžื˜ื™ืงื”.

-ื”ื›ืกืฃ ืžื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ื™ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื ืคืœื. ื‘ืœื™ ื–ื”, ืื ื™ ืœื ื™ื•ื“ืข ืžื” ื”ื”ื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœื™ ื”ื™ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืื—ืจื™ ื”ืžืœื—ืžื”. ื”ืชืžืงื“ืชื™ ื‘ืกื•ืฆื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื”, ืžื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื, ื•ืขื“ ืžื”ืจื” ื’ื™ืœื™ืชื™ ืฉืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืœื ื™ืฉืœื ืœืš ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืฆื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืขื•ืœื, ืื– ื”ืชื—ืœืชื™ (ืื—ืจื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ื ื”ื’ ืžื•ื ื™ืช ื•ืขื‘ื•ื“ื•ืช ืžื•ื–ืจื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช) ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืกื” ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื•ื‘ืคื™ืกื™ืงื”, ืฉื ืœืงื—ื• ืื•ืชื™ ื›ืžื” ืคืจื•ืคืกื•ืจื™ื ืชื—ืช ื—ืกื•ืชื ื•ื ืชื ื• ืœื™ ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช ืชื›ื ื•ืช – ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ! โ€“ ืขืœ ืคื™ืชื•ื—ื™minicomputersืžื•ืงื“ื ืฉืœื”ื, ื•ืขื•ื“ื“ื• ืื•ืชื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืงื•ืจืกื™ ื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื. ื‘ืกื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืงื™ื‘ืœืชื™ ืชื•ืืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืฉื›ืจ ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“, ื ืฉื›ืจืชื™ ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื”ืžื—ืฉื‘ื™ื, ื•ืขื‘ื“ืชื™ ืคื” ืžืื–, ื•ืฉื ื™ ื™ืœื“ื™ื™ ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” ื’ื ืขื ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืฉื›ืจ ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“, ืื– ืื ื™ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืœื•ื ืŸ.

ื‘ื™ืœื™ืชื™ ืžืขื˜ ืžืื•ื“ ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ. ืื‘ืœ ื–ื›ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื”ืฉืคืขื” ืฉืœื™ ืขืœ ื”- SSECื‘ื—ื™ื‘ื”. (ืื ื›ื™ ืื ื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ ืฉื–ื” ืงืฆืช ืœืžืชื•ื— ืืช ื”ื™ืจื™ืขื” ืขื ื”ื’ื“ืจืช ย ื””ืชื•ื›ื ืช ืื—ืกื•ืŸ” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื‘ืžื—ืฉื‘ – ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉืื—ืช ื”ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื™ ื ืขืฉืชื” ืขื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ืื—ืกื•ืŸ ืžื•ืชืืžื•ืช ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืžืงื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื”ื•ืจืื•ืช ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื›ืžื” ื ืชื•ื ื™ื ืื•ื—ืกื ื• ื‘ื”ืŸ) ื‘ืชืงื•ื•ื” ืฉื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขื–ื•ืจ.

 

-ื›ืŸ, ืื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข, ื–ื” ืงืฆืช ืžื•ื’ื–ื ?

ื™ืฉ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœื•ืžืจ, ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืžืขื˜ ื–ืžืŸ, ื–ื” ื›ื ืจืื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืงืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื ืื ื—ื ื• ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ. ืžืชื™ ื–ื” ื–ืžืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื”ืชืงืฉืจ?

  • ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ 9 ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืœ1 ื‘ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื ืื• ืž2 ื‘ืฆื”ืจื™ื™ื ืขื“ 6 ืื—ื””ืฆ, eastern time, ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื™ื•ื ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืื—ื””ืฆ, ื‘ื• ืื”ื™ื” ืืฆืœ ืจื•ืคื ืฉื™ื ื™ื™ื

(ื”ื•ื ืœื ืฉืžืข ืžืžื ื• ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ)

 

ื‘ืฉื ืช 2017, ืืœื™ื ื•ืจ ืงื•ืœืฆ’ื™ืŸ (ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ Kravitz), ืฉื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื” -40 ื•ื” -50, ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื” ื”ืขืจื”, “ื”ื›ืจืชื™ ืืช ื‘ืงื•ืก. ื”ื•ื ืขื‘ื“ ืขืœ ืคื™ืชื•ื— ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ … ืื ื™ ืขื•ืฆืžืช ืืช ืขื™ื ื™ ื•ืื ื™ ืจื•ืื” ืื•ืชื•. ืื ื—ื ื• [ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ] ื”ื™ื• [ื›ืžื”] ืžื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉื”ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ืคื•ืจื˜ืจืŸ. ื›ืœ ื—ื’ ื”ืžื•ืœื“, ื”ื™ืชื” ืœื ื• ืžืกื™ื‘ื”, ื•ืžืื—ืจ ืฉืœื ื”ื™ื• ืื ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ 612 ื‘ืจื—ื•ื‘ 116, ืชืžื™ื“ ื”ื™ื” ืœื ื• ืชืจืžื™ืœ ืฉื™ื ื”… ื›ื•ืœื ื• ื”ื›ืจื ื• ืื—ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื ื™. ืื ื™ ื’ื ืขื‘ื“ืชื™ ืœืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ SSEC, ื—ืฉื‘ื ื• ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ ื”ืœื›ืช ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื™ื … ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืื—ื“ ืœ-SSEC, ื•ืื—ื“ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืžื—ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื“ื™ืงื”. ื‘ื™ืงืฉืชื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืจื• ืœื™ ืœื”ืžืฉื™ืš ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžืขื‘ื“ืช ื•ื•ื˜ืกื•ืŸ, ื›ื™ ืื– ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืชื•ืืจ ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืงื•ืœื•ืžื‘ื™ื” “(ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ, 7 ื‘ืืคืจื™ืœ 2017)

Translations courtesy of Wall Art Brisbane